Soccer tournament records show that lower leg injuries are most often caused by inadequate shin guards. One recent study revealed that among one league of youth soccer players, the shins were the third most likely area to be injured. Of the seventeen fractures, four were to the tibia (shinbone). The study confirmed that shin guards significantly decreased the force to the tibia compared to impacts without shin guards. Make sure the shin guards meet appropriate safety (i.e. ASTM) standards.

 - Choose the right material. Your shin guards should be both durable and lightweight. They are normally made from a combination of shock-resistant polypropylene, foam and plastic. Ensure that they won’t negatively impact your performance and are able to withstand a hard tackle.

Make sure your shin guards are light. Bulky shin guards may negatively affect your performance making it difficult to handle the ball or move. If they feel like ankle weights, they may be too too heavy. You also want to make sure that they aren’t flimsy and solid enough to protect you from a tackle.

Keep your shin guard in place. Prevent your shin guard from sliding down your leg or getting loose by wrapping tape around the bottom. Avoid letting your your shin guard push against the top of your foot and ankle. Many shin guards only have velcro for the top so that you can tape the bottom to your preference.[18]
Refresh your tape during half time when you’re playing a match to make sure that it stays in place. If you have a team trainer, ask to tape your feet and ankles to help prevent injury.

Modern day shin guards are made of many differing synthetic materials, including, but not limited to:
Fiberglass - Stiff, sturdy, and light weight.
Foam rubber - Very light weight, but not as sturdy and solid as fiberglass.
Polyurethane - Heavy and sturdy, which offers almost complete protection from most impacts.
Plastic - Less protective than any of the other synthetic shin guards.
Metal - Highly protective, but very heavy and uncomfortable.

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Designer and architect Neri Oxman is leading the search for ways in which digital fabrication technologies can interact with the biological world. Working at the intersection of computational design, additive manufacturing, materials engineering and synthetic biology, her lab is pioneering a new age of symbiosis between microorganisms, our bodies, our products and even our buildings.

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Programming Architecture - The future of design - Geometrical Optimisation
In this video they demonstrate the static optimization of simple, small scale structures. The examples are intentionally extremely simple. In this video they only want to explain the principle, and they did not want to compromise the understanding of the basic idea by showing off with complex geometries. Videos with very interesting optimizations are coming soon...
In mathematics, a Voronoi diagram is a partitioning of a plane into regions based on distance to points in a specific subset of the plane. That set of points (called seeds, sites, or generators) is specified beforehand, and for each seed there is a corresponding region consisting of all points closer to that seed than to any other. These regions are called Voronoi cells. The Voronoi diagram of a set of points is dual to its Delaunay triangulation.
 VORONOI Engineering
In polymer physics, Voronoi diagrams can be used to represent free volumes of polymers.
In materials science, polycrystalline microstructures in metallic alloys are commonly represented using Voronoi tessellations. In solid state physics, the Wigner-Seitz cell is the Voronoi tessellation of a solid, and the Brillouin zone is the Voronoi tessellation of reciprocal (wave number) space of crystals which have the symmetry of a space group.
In aviation, Voronoi diagrams are superimposed on oceanic plotting charts to identify the nearest airfield for in-flight diversion (see ETOPS), as an aircraft progresses through its flight plan.
In architecture, Voronoi patterns were the basis for the winning entry for redevelopment of The Arts Centre Gold Coast.
In mining, Voronoi polygons are used to estimate the reserves of valuable materials, minerals, or other resources. Exploratory drillholes are used as the set of points in the Voronoi polygons.
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Legs - bones and muscles -
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